Responsibility is a notion of general international law and of space law. States and governmental international organizations are under the obligation to obey the rules of public international law. That means inter alia to honor the obligation entered into under a bilateral or multilateral treaty or not to harm other parties. In case of a breach of this primary obligation the obligation changes into so-called secondary obligations as
contained in the “Principles on State Responsibility” (Draft of the ILC, see Annex to UNGA Res. 56/83 of the ÚNGA of 12 December 2001) adopted by the International Law Commission and accepted by the General Assembly of the United Nations. The United Nations have also adopted “Rules on the Responsibility of International Organisations”.
In the area of secondary obligations some kind of reparation of the damage of having violated primary rules of international law are owed. They can be owed in the form of natural of immaterial compensation, e.g. in the form of an apology or in the form of the payment of damages.
Under Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 States are responsible for that private persons acting on their behalf do fulfill the obligation to authorize and supervise private space activities.